Alpine Linux is a tiny distro (like ~50 MiB for the whole system), which is usually very good for a relatively single-purpose setup, dedicated to running only a couple things at once.
It doesn't really sacrifice much in the process, since busybox and OpenRC there provide pretty complete toolkit for setting things up to start and debugging everything, its repos have pretty much anything, and what they don't have is trivial to build via APKBUILD files very similar to Arch's PKGBUILDs.
Really nice thing seem to have happened to it with the rise of docker/podman and such single-app containers, when it got a huge boost in popularity, being almost always picked as an OS base in these, and so these days it seem to be well-supported to cover all linux architectures, and likely will be for quite a while.
So it's a really good choice for an appliance-type ARM boards to deploy and update for years, but it doesn't really bother specializing itself for each of those or supporting board-specific quirks, which is why some steps to set it up for a specific board have to be done manually.
Since I've done it for a couple different boards relatively recently, and been tinkering with these for a while, thought to write down a list of steps on how to set alpine up for a new board here.
In this case, it's a relatively-old ODROID-C2 that I have from 2016, which is well-supported in mainline linux kernel by now, as popular boards tend to be, after a couple years since release, and roughly same setup steps should apply to any of them.
Current Alpine is 3.15.4 and Linux is 5.18 (or 5.15 LTS) atm of writing this.
Get USB-UART dongle (any dirt-cheap $5 one will do) and a couple jumper wires, lookup where main UART pins are on the board (ones used by firmware/u-boot).
Official documentation or wiki is usually the best source of info on that. There should be RX/TX and GND pins, only those need to be connected.
screen /dev/ttyUSB0 115200 command is my go-to way to interact with those, but there're other tools for that too.
If there's another ARM board laying around, they usually have same UART pins, so just twist TX/RX and connect to the serial console from there.
Check which System-on-Chip (SoC) family/vendor device uses, look it up wrt mainline linux support, and where such effort might be coordinated.For example, for Amlogic SoC in ODC2, linux-meson.com has all the info.Allwinner SoCs tend to be documented at linux-sunxi.org wiki.Beaglebones' TI SoC at elinux.org, RPi's site/community, ... etc etc.
There're usually an IRC or whatever chat channels linked on those too, and tons of helpful info all around, though sometimes outdated and distro-specific.
Get U-Boot for the board, ideally configured for some sane filesystem layout.
"Generic ARM" images on Alpine Downloads page tend to have these, but architecture is limited to armv7/aarch64 boards, but a board vendor's u-boot will work just as well, and it might come with pre-uboot stages or signing anyway, which definitely have to be downloaded from their site and docs.
With ODC2, there're docs and download links for bootloader specifically, which include an archive with a signing tool and a script to sign/combine all blobs and dd them into right location on microSD card, where firmware will try to run it from.
Bootloader can also be extracted from some vendor-supplied distro .img (be it ubuntu or android), if there's no better option - dd that on the card and rm -rf all typical LFS dirs on the main partition there, as well as kernel/initramfs in /boot - what's left should be a bootloader (incl. parts of it dd'ed before partitions) and its configs.
Often all magic there is "which block to dd u-boot.img to", and if Alpine Generic ARM has u-boot blob for specific board (has one for ODROID-C2), then that one should be good to use, along with blobs in /efi and its main config file in /extlinux - dd/cp u-boot to where firmware expects it to be and copy those extra stage/config dirs.
Boot the board into u-boot with UART console connected, get that working.
There should be at least output from board's firmware, even without any microSD card, then u-boot will print a lot of info about itself and what it's doing, and eventually it (or later stages) will try to load linux kernel, initramfs and dtb files, specified in whatever copied configs.
If "Generic ARM" files or whatever vendor distro was not cleaned-up from card partitions, it might even start linux and some kind of proper OS, though kernel in that generic alpine image seem to be lacking ODC2 board support and has no dtb for it.
Next part is to drop some working linux kernel/dtb (+initramfs maybe), rootfs, and that should boot into something interactive. Conversely, no point moving ahead with the rest of the setup until bootloader and console connected there all work as expected.
Get or build a working Linux kernel.
It's not a big deal (imo at least) to configure and build these manually, as there aren't really that many options when configuring those for ARM - you basically pick the SoC and all options with MESON or SUNXI in the name for this specific model, plus whatever generic features/filesystems/etc you will need in there. Idea is to enable with =y (compile-in) all drivers that are needed for SoC to boot, and the rest can be =m (loadable modules).
Ideally after being built somewhere, kernel should be installed via proper Alpine package, and for my custom ODC2 kernel, I just reused linux-lts APKBUILD file from "aports" git repository, running "make nconfig" in src/build-... dir to make new .config and then copy it back for abuild to use.
Running abuild -K build rootpkg is generally how kernel package can be rebuilt after any .config modifications in the build directory, i.e. after fixing whatever forgotten things needed for boot. (good doc/example of the process can be found at strfry's blog here)
These builds can be run in same-arch alpine chroot, in a VM or on some other board. I've used an old RPi3 board to do aarch64 build with an RPi Alpine image there - there're special pre-configured ones for those boards, likely due to their massive popularity (so it was just the easiest thing to do).
I'd also suggest renaming the package from linux-lts to something unique for specific build/config, like "linux-odc2-5-15-36", with idea there being able to install multiple such linux-* packages alongside each other easily.
This can help a lot if one of them might have issues in the future - not booting, crashes/panics, any incompatibilities, etc - as you can then simply flip bootloader config to load earlier version, and test new versions without comitting to them easily via kexec (especially cool for remote headless setups - see below).
For C2 board kconfig, I've initially grabbed one from superna9999/meta-meson repo, built/booted that (on 1G-RAM RPi3, that large build needed zram enabled for final vmlinuz linking), to test if it works at all, and then configured much more minimal kernel from scratch.
One quirk needed there for ODC2 was enabling CONFIG_REGULATOR_* options for "X voltage supplied by Y" messages in dmesg that eventually enable MMC reader, but generally kernel's console output is pretty descriptive wrt what might be missing, especially if it can be easily compared with an output from a working build like that.
For the purposes of initial boot, linux kernel is just one "vmlinuz" file inside resulting .apk (tar can unpack those), but dtbs-* directory must be copied from package alongside it too for ARM boards like these odroids, as they use blobs there to describe what is connected where and how to kernel.
Specific dtb can also be concatenated into kernel image file, to have it all-in-one, but there should be no need to do that, as all such board bootloaders expect to have dtbs and have configuration lines to load them already.
So, to recap:
- Linux configuration: enable stuff needed to boot and for accessing MMC slot, or whatever rootfs/squashfs storage.
- Build scripts: use APKBUILD from Alpine aports, just tweak config there and maybe rename it, esp. if you want multiple/fallback kernels.
- Build machine: use other same-arch board or VM with alpine or its chroot.
- Install: "tar -xf" apk, drop vmlinuz file and dtbs dir into /boot.
Update extlinux.conf or whatever bootloader config for new kernel files, boot that.
E.g. after dropping vmlinuz and dtbs from "linux-c51536r01" package for u-boot.bin from Alpine's "Generic ARM" build (running efi blob with extlinux.conf support):
TIMEOUT 20 PROMPT 1 DEFAULT odc2 LABEL odc2 MENU LABEL Linux odc2 KERNEL /boot/vmlinuz-c51536r01 # INITRD /boot/initramfs-c51536r01 FDTDIR /boot/dtbs-c51536r01 APPEND root=/dev/mmcblk0p1
Idea with this boot config is to simply get kernel to work and mount some rootfs without issues, so e.g. for custom non-generic/modular one, built specifically for ODROID-C2 board in prev step, there's no need for that commented-out INITRD line.
Once this boots and mounts rootfs (and then presumably panics as it can't find /sbin/init there), remaining part is to bootstrap/grab basic alpine rootfs for it to run userspace OS parts from.
This test can also be skipped for more generic and modular kernel config, as it's not hard to test it with proper roots and initramfs later either.
Setup bootable Alpine rootfs.
It can be grabbed from the same Alpine downloads URL for any arch, but if there's already a same-arch alpine build setup for kernel package, might be easier to bootstrap it with all necessary packages there instead:
# apk='apk -p odc2-root -X https://dl.alpinelinux.org/alpine/v3.15/main/ -U --allow-untrusted' # $apk --arch aarch64 --initdb add alpine-base # $apk add linux-firmware-none mkinitfs # $apk add e2fsprogs # or ones for f2fs, btrfs or whatever # $apk add linux-c51536r01-5.15.36-r1.apk
To avoid needing --allow-untrusted for anything but that local linux-c51536r01 package, apk keys can be pre-copied from /etc/apk to odc2-root/etc/apk just like Alpine's setup-disk script does it.
That rootfs will have everything needed for ODC2 board to boot, including custom kernel with initramfs generated for it, containing any necessary modules. Linux files on /boot should overwrite manually-unpacked/copied ones in earlier test, INITRD or similar line can be enabled/corrected for bootloader, but after cp/rsync, rootfs still needs a couple additional tweaks (again similar to what setup-disk Alpine script does):
etc/fstab: add e.g. /dev/mmcblk0p1 / ext4 rw,noatime 0 1 to fsck/remount rootfs.
I'd add tmpfs /tmp tmpfs size=30%,nodev,nosuid,mode=1777 0 0 there as well, since Alpine's OpenRC is not systemd and doesn't have default mountpoints all over the place.
etc/inittab: comment-out all default tty's and enable UART one.
E.g. ttyAML0::respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyAML0 115200 vt100 for ODROID-C2 board.
This is important to get login prompt on the right console, so make sure to check kernel output to find the right one, e.g. with ODC2 board:
c81004c0.serial: ttyAML0 at MMIO 0xc81004c0 (irq = 23, base_baud = 1500000) is a meson_uart
But it can also be ttyS0 or ttyAMA0 or something else on other ARM platforms.
etc/securetty: add ttyAML0 line for console there too, same as with inittab.
Otherwise even though login prompt will be there, getty will refuse to ask for password on that console, and immediately respond with "user is disabled" or something like that.
This should be enough to boot and login into working OS on the same UART console.
Setup basic stuff on booted rootfs.
With initial rootfs booting and login-able, all that's left to get this to a more typical OS with working network and apk package management.
"vi" is default editor in busybox, and it can be easy to use once you know to press "i" at the start (switching it to a notepad-like "insert" mode), and press "esc" followed by ":wq" + "enter" at the end to save edits (or ":q!" to discard).
/etc/apk/repositories should have couple lines like https://dl.alpinelinux.org/alpine/v3.15/main/, appropriate for this Alpine release and repos (just main + community, probably)
echo nameserver 18.104.22.168 > /etc/resolv.conf + /etc/network/interfaces:
printf '%s\n' >/etc/network/interfaces \ 'auto lo' 'iface lo inet loopback' 'auto eth0' 'iface eth0 inet dhcp'
Or something like that.
Also, to dhcp-configure network right now:
ip link set eth0 up && udhcpc ntpd -dd -n -q -p pool.ntp.org
rc-update add anything used/useful from /etc/init.d.
There aren't many scripts in there by default, and all should be pretty self-explanatory wrt what they are for.
Something like this can be a good default:
for s in bootmisc hostname modules sysctl syslog ; do rc-update add $s boot; done for s in devfs dmesg hwdrivers mdev ; do rc-update add $s sysinit; done for s in killprocs mount-ro savecache ; do rc-update add $s shutdown; done for s in networking ntpd sshd haveged ; do rc-update add $s; done
Run rc-update show -v to get a full picture of what is setup to run when with openrc, should be much simplier and more comprehensible than systemd in general.
sshd and haveged there can probably be installed after network works, or in earlier rootfs-setup step (and haveged likely unnecessary with more recent kernels that fixed blocking /dev/random).
ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/... /etc/localtime maybe?
That should be it - supported and upgradable Alpine with a custom kernel apk and bootloader for this specific board.
Extra: kexec for updating kernels safely, without breaking the boot.
Once some initial linux kernel boots and works, and board is potentially tucked away somewhere where it's hard to reach for pulling microSD card out, it can be scary to update kernel to potentially something that won't be able to boot, start crashing, etc.
Easy solution for that is kexec - syscall/mechanism to start a new kernel from another working kernel/OS.
Might need to build/install kexec-tools apk to use it - it's missing on some architectures, but APKBUILD from aports and the tool itself should work just fine without changes. Also don't forget to enable it in the kernel.
Using multiple kernel packages alongside each other like suggested above, something like this should work for starting new linux from an old one immediately:
# apk install --allow-untrusted linux-c51705r08-5.17.5-r0.apk # kexec -sf /boot/vmlinuz-c51705r08 --initrd /boot/initramfs-c51705r08 --reuse-cmdline
It works just like userspace exec() syscalls, but gets current kernel to exec a new one instead, which generally looks like reboot, except without involving firmware and bootloader at all.
This way it's easy to run and test anything in new kernel or in its cmdline options safely, with simple reboot or power-cycling reverting it back to an old known-good linux/bootloader setup.
Once everything is confirmed-working with new kernel, bootloader config can potentially be updated to use it instead, and old linux-something package replaced with a new one as a known-good fallback on the next update.
This process is not entirely foolproof however, as sometimes linux drivers or maybe hardware have some kind of init-state mismatch, which actually happens with C2 board, where its built-in network card fails to work after kexec, unless its linux module is unloaded before that.
Something like this inside "screen" session can be used to fix that particular issue:
# rmmod dwmac_meson8b stmmac_platform stmmac && kexec ... ; reboot
"reboot" at the end should never run if "kexec" works, but if any of this fails, C2 board won't end up misconfigured/disconnected, and just reboot back into old kernel instead.
So far I've only found such hack needed with ODROID-C2, other boards seem to work fine after kexec, so likely just a problem in this specific driver expecting NIC to be in one specific state on init.
This post is kinda long because of how writing works, but really it all boils down to "dd" for board-specific bootloader and using board-specific kernel package with a generic Alpine rootfs, so not too difficult, especially given how simple and obvious everything is in Alpine Linux itself.
Supporting many different boards, each with its unique kernel, bootloader and quirks seem to be a pain for most distros, which can barely get by with x86 support, but if the task is simplified to just providing rootfs and pre-built package repository, a reasonably well-supported distro like Alpine has a good chance to work well in the long run, I think.
ArchLinuxARM, Armbian and various vendor distros like Raspbian provide nicer experience out-of-the-box, but eventually have to drop support for old hardware, while these old ARM boards don't really go anywhere in my experience, and keep working fine for their purpose, hence more long-term bet on something like alpine seems more reasonable than distro-hopping or needless hardware replacement every couple years, and alpine in particular is just a great fit for such smaller systems.